Tuesday, June 9, 2020

Reflection on Power Essay - 550 Words

Reflection on Power (Essay Sample) Content: REFLECTION ON POWER Name: Course:Instructor: Date: Reflection on power (leadership) - Journal summaryLeadership is about having power to influence others to do things (Sadler 2003). Some leaders gain the power out of their ability to hire and fire, such leaders are unlikely to be enthusiastic and they are unreliable. On the other hand, other leaders obtain their power because of their expertise in the field. The expertise leaders are admirable; they form role model as people desire to have similar skills and personal qualities. In this course, the main learning goal is to obtain a greater understanding of leadership and power. Thereafter, one is supposed to subject him/herself into the findings and determine what type of leaders they are (Popadiuk 2009). Leadership and power are closely interlinked; however, they are different in essence, in application, and in the real world situation. As discussed, leadership is having the ability to influence others, and the exten t of power differs from one leader to another. Social psychologists have conducted studies to give a clear understanding, and the most notable studies on power in the 1959 involved two social psychologists; John French and Bertram Raven. According to French and Raven, there are five bases of power: Legitimate, reward, expert, referent and coercive power. Legitimate power happens when a leader makes demands, and thereafter expects obedience and compliance (Daft 2003). Coercive powers happens when a leader has the ability to punish others for noncompliance The reward power happens when a leader can compensate the other party for compliance; the expert leadership bases on the leaders superior skills and knowledge. The referent power comes from a natural attractiveness, perception of worthiness, and a leader gains respect from others. Of all these forms of power, the best form of power is the expertise; while referent power follows. Leadership by itself is a challenge, where a leader ha s to deal with different characters and harmonize all situations. Difficult situations may arise in the leadership process, and only an expertise leader would know how to handle the situation intelligently, otherwise a legitimate or coercive power leader would simply make wrong decisions that would lead to regrets later on. Bush presented a bad leader who took advantage of his position. He was involved in several scandals and out of his legitimate power; He enforced the US Attorney firings, the Iran war, mishandling of the nuclear issue at the North Korea, and failed to capture Osama Bin Laden on the war on terror among other scandals (Kettl 2003). Bush presented a legitimate leader with coercive powers. In my daily routine activities, I have participated in discussion groups, which form a small society. In the process of interacting with my discussion group members, I have encountered the exact application of a referent power. I am the group leader with much influence, brilliant an d intelligent and can make the impossible happen. The interaction and online learning environment not only gives a practical appearance of happenings in the real life, but also gives one an opportunity to sit back and reflect, while imagining what type of leader people should make. Reflection on Power Essay - 550 Words Reflection on Power (Essay Sample) Content: REFLECTION ON POWER Name: Course:Instructor: Date: Reflection on power (leadership) - Journal summaryLeadership is about having power to influence others to do things (Sadler 2003). Some leaders gain the power out of their ability to hire and fire, such leaders are unlikely to be enthusiastic and they are unreliable. On the other hand, other leaders obtain their power because of their expertise in the field. The expertise leaders are admirable; they form role model as people desire to have similar skills and personal qualities. In this course, the main learning goal is to obtain a greater understanding of leadership and power. Thereafter, one is supposed to subject him/herself into the findings and determine what type of leaders they are (Popadiuk 2009). Leadership and power are closely interlinked; however, they are different in essence, in application, and in the real world situation. As discussed, leadership is having the ability to influence others, and the exten t of power differs from one leader to another. Social psychologists have conducted studies to give a clear understanding, and the most notable studies on power in the 1959 involved two social psychologists; John French and Bertram Raven. According to French and Raven, there are five bases of power: Legitimate, reward, expert, referent and coercive power. Legitimate power happens when a leader makes demands, and thereafter expects obedience and compliance (Daft 2003). Coercive powers happens when a leader has the ability to punish others for noncompliance The reward power happens when a leader can compensate the other party for compliance; the expert leadership bases on the leaders superior skills and knowledge. The referent power comes from a natural attractiveness, perception of worthiness, and a leader gains respect from others. Of all these forms of power, the best form of power is the expertise; while referent power follows. Leadership by itself is a challenge, where a leader ha s to deal with different characters and harmonize all situations. Difficult situations may arise in the leadership process, and only an expertise leader would know how to handle the situation intelligently, otherwise a legitimate or coercive power leader would simply make wrong decisions that would lead to regrets later on. Bush presented a bad leader who took advantage of his position. He was involved in several scandals and out of his legitimate power; He enforced the US Attorney firings, the Iran war, mishandling of the nuclear issue at the North Korea, and failed to capture Osama Bin Laden on the war on terror among other scandals (Kettl 2003). Bush presented a legitimate leader with coercive powers. In my daily routine activities, I have participated in discussion groups, which form a small society. In the process of interacting with my discussion group members, I have encountered the exact application of a referent power. I am the group leader with much influence, brilliant an d intelligent and can make the impossible happen. The interaction and online learning environment not only gives a practical appearance of happenings in the real life, but also gives one an opportunity to sit back and reflect, while imagining what type of leader people should make.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The Argumentative Essay Samples For Teachers

The Argumentative Essay Samples For TeachersThe articles of this book have attracted people and propelled discussion about subjects of a range of topics, on topics like education, health and diet, marriage, philosophy, politics, business, crime, religion, war, and love. A student will be happy if he uses an argumentative essay samples for teachers with either philosophy and education involved. A student can then expect to have a deeper understanding about a subject of his choice.These academic literature styles are too complex for one paragraph of facts and figures, but a teacher will be glad if his student writes about an academic topic. These online academic papers are divided into two categories: The first is best for best to summarize the topic, and the second is best for further research and explanation.Writing theses in general is not easy, because students will be writing theses that have to be grammatically correct and know what is meant by adjectives, such as 'best', 'most', and so on. He will be forced to proofread and write a little differently. This is due to the fact that his teacher is expecting his essay to show the key ideas.The argumentative essay samples for teachers have the literary intent of exposing students to the primary objects of the subject. The essay may have to deal with religious messages, science, wars, sex, war, military, religion, philosophy, science, politics, law, diet, gardening, sports, gardening, crime, and sex in order to give the student a deeper understanding of the subject. These articles also show the intellectual agility of the writers.These essays are able to show logic of the writer. They use common sense to solve problems in a way that makes the student understand it. The lesson is given in the form of words, but not in the form of 'do this and then do that'.These are those that will show the key ideas of the article to a student. They are therefore the ideal way to go if one wants to do a good academic essay. Afte r all, this type of essay will show the reader what a student's grasp of the subject means. The writer will be a better writer and, therefore, more deserving of acceptance.The writer is better than one. So, he should be given the chance to demonstrate how he can be a better writer. The following arguments are part of argumentative essay samples for teachers. These articles will help a student to be a better writer.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Movie Analysis Zootopia - 809 Words

Alexandria Lara Theater 7B Professor Foster 6 December 2016 Zootopia The animated movie, Zootopia, is about an unlikely partnership between Judy Hopps who is rabbit police officer and Nick Wilde who is a red fox as well as a con artist. In the beginning of the film, it shows Judy as a young bunny and then progresses to when she’s older and has fulfilled her dream of becoming the first rabbit police officer in Zootopia. On her first day of the job, she was assigned to parking duty despite being top in her class. She asks to be put onto one of the cases of the fourteen missing animals but is dismissed by her Chief, Bogo. While giving out tickets, she’s hustled by Nick. The next day, Judy abandons parking duty to make an arrest and Chief Bogo lectures her. Mrs. Otterton enters Bogos office begging for someone to find her husband Emmitt, 1 of 14 predators went missing. Judy volunteers, causing Bogo to fire her for insubordination until the assistant mayor praises her letting the mayor know she s taking the case. Bogo gives her 48 hours to find Otterton on the condition that she must resign if she fails. Judy blackmails Nick into helping her on finding Mr. Otterton since he was the last to see him. They discover the missing animals and anyone involved was arrested. During Judy’s press conference she upsets him by suggesting a biological cause for the recent predator behavior at a press conference, and he leaves causing Judy to quit out of guilt. Back in her hometown, JudyShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Movie Zootopia902 Words   |  4 PagesHernandez 24 October 2017 Comp. 1 5th Hour Movie Review Zootopia Judy Hopps, also known as Ginnifer Goodwin, is a fictional character in the movie Zootopia. Zootopia is an action packed animated film that came out on March 4, 2016. All of the characters in the movie are anthropomorphic, which means they are all animals that have human characteristics. The movie is about a young rabbit named Judy Hopps who wants to become the first bunny cop in Zootopia. Zootopia is a large city where predator andRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Zootopia871 Words   |  4 PagesAfter watching the movie Zootopia, it is evident that there is a sociological aspect to it as it contains a lot of stereotypes, social control, discrimination and prejudice. The movie illustrates many of the social challenges people face in society today, from how tiny bunny Judy Hopps is perceived as weak and useless, to the way her fox friend, Nick Wilde, is initially portrayed as devious and sly. However, this motion picture is not only about the problems often seen throughout the real world,Read MoreMovie Analysis : Zootopia Essay1342 Words   |  6 PagesThe film â€Å"Zootopia† is a film about not giving up and demonstrations several significant sociological concepts. The main character of the film is a tiny bunny called Judy Hopps. Judy has huge dreams of becoming the first bunny police officer and working in the great city of Zootopia. Although Judy fails multiple times and also comes to be discouraged by many people, she doesn’t let them get her down. Throughout the film, Judy takes on an important mystery case and encounters characters such asRead MoreZootopia And Maltese Falcon Analysis743 Words   |  3 Pagescomes to mind when mentioned. Every person in this world has a stereotype either positive or negative associated with them from sexual orientation to race to age. However, in most cases this is not true whatsoever. Through the analysis of Hall, Dyer, and the films Zootopia and Maltese Falcon it will be shown that stereotype s are ever changing and are producing the social norms while at the same time are being rammed down your throat and reinforced through films. The author Stuart Hall has a ideologyRead MoreZootopia Film Analysis1765 Words   |  8 Pages â€Æ' Leadership Film Analysis Disney’s Zootopia is a great depiction of James Kouzes’s and Barry Posner’s Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership. The main protagonist, Judy Hopps, exemplifies those practices - model the way, inspire a shared vision, challenge the process, enable others to act, and encourage the heart. The first practice is model the way. According to Kouzes and Posner (2014), in order to model the way a leader must â€Å"clarify values by finding your voice and affirming shared values†Read MoreCritical Analysis : Transactional Analysis1193 Words   |  5 PagesKing Julien, Bellwether, and Bruce were some of the lower scoring leaders when it came to the trait approach analysis. Transactional Analysis may be another way to measure success in leadership as is trait approach. Animal leaders that tend to shift back and forth between ego states tend to have poor leadership outcomes. If we look again at Dory, Judy, and Skipper we don’t see very many or very dramatic shifts out their adult rational ego state. The traits that correlate with the shifting betweenRead MoreStrategic Planning : Walt Disney1592 Words   |  7 PagesMGT411 Strategic Planning Walt Disney Company Strategic Analysis Patten University Disney, Yesterday and Today The Walt Disney Company was formed in 1923 as the Disney Brother Cartoon Studio with Walt and Roy Disney. With the start of Alice Wonderland series, Walt Disney would start a company that would go on to become legend. A staple for all things animation and the standard in which the industry models itself the Disney Company went on to create ground breaking milestones in animation and allRead MoreThe Colonialism Of The Walt Disney Company1571 Words   |  7 Pagescountry, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically,† and Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy’s defines colonialism as, â€Å"a practice of domination, which involves the subjugation of one people to another.† My case study is the Disney movie, Moana. I am focusing on Moana because it is the most recent Disney animated film about an indigenous culture. Moana is centered in an unknown Polynesian land before Western colonization and focuses on the chief’s daughter, Moana on the island of MotuniRead MoreErm Research Report On Walt Disney Company Essay1585 Words   |  7 Pagesengaging physical products and digital experiences, inspiring the imaginations of the young and young at heart. II. SWAT Analysis STRENGTHS Strong Brand Effect Diversified Business Stable Market Range WEAKNESSES Missed the Online Market Copy Right Management Foreign Laws and Regulations OPPORTUNITIES Extend Disney Business to Developing Countries Development of Data Analysis Digital Age THREATS Strong Competitors Changes in Economic conditions Changes of Technology 1. Strengths a. StrongRead MoreThe Disney Company : A Giant Of The World Of Media And Entertainment Essay1792 Words   |  8 Pages The quarterly earnings data shows a positive momentum and increased profits during the period beginning June 27, 2015 and ending July 2, 2016. In 2016, the Disney Company forecasts even greater earnings and growth based on the current market analysis and financial forecasts. Disney Quarterly Earnings The following table summarizes the third quarter and nine-month results for fiscal 2016 and 2015 (in millions, except per share amounts): Quarter Ended Nine Months Ended July 2, 2016 June

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Characteristics Of Heroes In The Outsides And The...

Gerard Way once said, â€Å"All the best heroes are ordinary people who make themselves extraordinary†. This quote means that someone does not need to be a superhero and have special powers to be a hero. Heroes are people who do amazing things with what traits they possess. Heroes are extremely common in books, movies, and comics. In todays society, heroes could be anyone from doctors to soldiers. Clearly, in the book â€Å"The Outsiders† by S.E. Hinton, Darry Curtis and Dallas Winston both can be considered heroes. A hero is someone who will selflessly help others. Heroes make the world and community more desirable places and are admired by others. Heroes make the world a better place due to the fact they protect people, help keep the†¦show more content†¦Darry does not want anything to happen to Pony so he has to be very firm with him. Furthermore Darry looks after the gang and tries to keep them safe. Some of the gangs home lives are not the great est so Darry always leaves the front door unlocked so that they can blow off steam and keep themselves out of trouble. Darry would rather have the gang stay over on their couch than do something foolish. Without a doubt, Darry Curtis can be considered a hero due to the fact that he works hard to keep his family together and to support them. Clearly, Dallas Winston can also be seen as a hero in the book â€Å"The Outsiders† by S.E Hinton. Even though Dally has a police record a mile long, he cares for Johnny and tries to be a caring and loving figure in Johnny’s life. When Johnny kills Bob, Dally gives him money, a gun, and a safe spot to go. Dally could have saved the getaway location and his back-up plan for himself, but he gave it to Johnny. Johnny is one of the only things on earth that Dally loves. Another example that Dally is a hero is that he saves Johnny from the burning church, even though he could die doing it. To save Johnny from burning to death, he runs back into the church, risking his life in order to save Johnny. This is exactly what firefighters and other heroes do. Ultimately, as much trouble that Dally causes, he can be calledShow MoreRelatedTruman Capote and Rachel Armstrong: Analysis of Critical Movie Characters1171 Words   |  5 PagesArmstrong Critical Movie Character Analy sis How the characters are positioned as Outsiders, in their lives and in the films (i.e. how do they behave as outsiders in their on-screen world, amongst friends, family, colleagues, etc., and how does the film emphasize that outsider position). The two characters, Truman Capote and Rachel Armstrong, are definitely to be considered outsiders. They both live outside the realm of what could be considered a normal life by most people. Various culturesRead MoreThe Tragic Hero Of Things Fall Apart 1283 Words   |  6 Pagesis the turning point for the character, they often come to realization of something important and meaningful. Lastly is the tragic hero s downfall, this is simply the heroes downward spiral of events. The characters Okonkwo and Macbeth both carry all of these aspects. The protagonists , Okonkwo and Macbeth, are both tragic heroes, who share similarities and differences that ultimately lead to their downfall. Okonkwo is considered a man of high status. He was looked at as a fierce warriorRead MoreLiterary Criticism : The Hunger Games 1460 Words   |  6 Pagesnot conform into the tribute that the Capitol wanted to see, specifically President Snow, she would have been seen as an outsider. Katniss’s masculine personality and appearance would have made it harder for the people of Panem to desire her. Katniss did not have a choice but to conform into the ideal female tribute, if she did not she would have been, â€Å"represented as ‘outsiders’ (Perez Valverde, 2009, p.264), ‘monstrous’ (Heinecken, 2011, p.129), ‘too-powerful’ (Parsons, Sawars, McInally, 2008Read MoreAnalysis Of Bilbo s The Hobbit 1212 Words   |  5 Pagesreasons he is an underdog. In the beginning of the novel, Bilbo is described as a timid hobbit, lacking much worldly experience or passion for adventure. This is the reader’s initial impression of the protagonist, which automatically sets up the characteristics of an underdog. Bilbo is accustomed to his mundane life, having never left Hobbiton. He prefers the consistency of his ordinary life to the nightmare of venturing out. He is filled with self-doubt and anxiety and does not believe he is c apableRead MoreThe Outsiders: Effects of Social Class1857 Words   |  8 Pagesof opportunity. We experience a good deal of social mobility, where people through generations or in their own lifetime can move up or down the social scale. By examining the many different perceptions of social class along with S.E. Hintons The Outsiders, it is illustrated that social class has an impact on people while they are growing up, and will usually deny them from rising above adversity. Many people have tried to figure out exactly what it is that makes up a particular social class. In MedievalRead More Cyberpunk and Science Fiction Essay1518 Words   |  7 PagesCyberpunk and Science Fiction Science fiction can be defined as a method of story telling that steps outside of the box of life as we know it and into the realm of the impossible. Science fiction works are often designed to be only truthful in the eyes of the author and the reader. However, there are times when either a science fiction work parallels closely to the future of our world and therefore becomes a possibility or life pursues a science fiction-like ideal making the quest heroic inRead MoreViolent Crimes - Terrorism : Terrorism1445 Words   |  6 PagesEssentially, the way humans behave in regards to life and the general treatment of life in particular is a cultural characteristic that has a tremendous impact on terrorism. This is extremely apparent in certain societies in which people identify themselves in terms of a family, clan, or tribe and have a predisposition to self-sacrifice in the name of their culture and beliefs and are scene as heroes. For Americans, this is only relatable when they hear of an American soldier that sacrificed themselves forRead MoreNarrative Style in Conrads Heart of Darkness1660 Words   |  7 Pagesarrangement produces. The usage of Marlow as narrator instead of Conrad himself became important due to Conrad’s anxiety to adopt an English point of view which had been denied to him largely. His self-consciousness as a Polish à ©migrà © and therefore an outsider reflected in his attempt at anglicising his name. Also well-known was his obsession with â€Å"fidelity to the truth of my own sensations† in his writings. The reconciliation of the two – an English point of view and the â€Å"truth† of his sensations, howeverRead MoreThe Myth And Reality Of The Cowboy Shaped Today Essay2050 Words   |  9 Pagesthat. If sadness is shown, then they will be called weak or a wimp, and being called one of those things or worse can destroy a guy’s world. Appearance is always the key to show how manly a guy is, â€Å"If he’s gruff, handsome, and physically fit on the outside, he’s androgynous at the core,† (Ehrlich 1045). The way a male portrays their selves is how they can get the respect they â€Å"know† they deserve. Nine times out of ten during their childhood they watch a lot of masculine shows or movies such as SpiderRead More Ernest Hemingways Code Hero in For Who The Bell Tolls and A Farewell To Arms4503 Words   |  19 PagesHemingway has undoubtedly had a major influence on contemporary American literature. One aspect of Hemingways famous writing that shines in almost all of his works is the hero. Hemingway created the famous Hemingway code by which all of his heroes, often called code heroes, lived. One critic asserted that, Hemingway invented more than a style he invented the Hemingway hero. (Papa) Hemingway attempted to live by this code but did not enjoy the success of his fictional characters. In fact, critic Joseph

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

William Shakespeare s Hamlet - 1441 Words

Renee James English Final Essay F. Rampello Due: May 9th 2016 In the beginning of Hamlet, Hamlet tells Horatio, â€Å"I perchance hereafter shall think meet / to put an antic disposition on† (Act I, Scene V, lines 190-192). Hamlet decides to fake his insanity, but does his insanity become his reality throughout the play? Hamlet s madness only manifests itself when he is in the presence of certain characters. When Hamlet is around Polonius, Claudius, Gertrude, Ophelia, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, he behaves irrationally. When Hamlet is around Horatio, Bernardo, Francisco, The Players and the Gravediggers, he behaves rationally. His mood and attitude changes abruptly throughout the play leading one to believe that his madness became a†¦show more content†¦Hamlet poses the problem of whether to commit suicide as a logical question: â€Å"To be, or not to be,† that is, to live or not to live. He then weighs the moral outcomes of living and dying. Is it nobler to suffer life, â€Å"the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,† passively or to actively seek to end one’s suffering? He compares death to sleep and thinks of sleep as the end to pain and suffering. Hamlet speaks of the uncertainty of the afterlife, which essentially prevents all of humanity from committing suicide to end a painful life. This soliloquy really expands the quality of Hamlet’s mind and what is really going on inside of it. Hamlet works furiously to find a solution to end his misery. Hamlet himself is more subject to apprehension than to action, which is why he delays so long before seeking his revenge on Claudius. Hamlet is mainly upset about his mother and uncle’s quick marriage. He constantly has violent outbursts towards his mother throughout the play. As Hamlet talks to his mother, Hamlet tells Gertrude that he is not crazy but he asks her to lie and tell Claudius that he is in fact mad. As we can see here, Gertrude tells the king that Hamlet s as mad as the sea and wind (Act IV, Scene I, Line 2). Why does she do this? Is she trying to protect her son or does she really think Hamlet has gone mad? Hamlet alone sees his father s ghost in his mother s chamber. Every other time the ghost appeared someone

The Impact Of Gun Violence On America - 1905 Words

Josh Olorunsaiye Ms. Middlebrooks Honors 10 Literature 5 March 2016 Gun Violence in America Gun Violence is a major problem in the United States, it leads to a lot of deaths every day. The area of focus is the United States of America. More controls need to be put on guns to make America a safer nation. More than 30,000 people are killed each year in this country due to guns. There are some questions that haven’t been answered like, Amendments that need to be made to reduce the availability of guns. At the point when American threats with Britain began on April 19, 1775, the Continental Congress had no standing armed force, no stores of weapons and munitions, no naval force, and no navy ships. The Continental Congress revitalized volunteers to join the battle against the British. Farmers and tradesmen conveying their own black powder guns framed a volunteer army along the street from Boston to Concord, Massachusetts, discharged the first shot of the Revolution, and battled again on Bunker Hill in Charlestown on June 17. As a result, the Consti tution of the United States was embraced in 1787 on the condition that a Bill of Rights would be included. The initial Ten Amendments to the Constitution, including the Second Amendment, were sanctioned by Congress on December 15, 1791. The Second Amendment states: A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. The historical backdrop ofShow MoreRelatedGun Laws And Gun Control1296 Words   |  6 Pagesseveral years, gun violence has been an urgent issue that should be addressed. According to the gun violence archive, 307 mass shootings have occurred since January 1 to November 5. The deadliest mass shooting in us history had just recently occurred on Sunday, October 1. Steve paddock had purchased their guns legally in which caused approximately 500 people to be injured and 38 people had been killed. The congress is constantly being urged by people to impose strict gun laws for America . Gun control lawsRead MoreGun Violence And Gun Control726 Words   |  3 PagesThe two articles that I have read were â€Å"Connecticut School Shooting ‘An Attack on America’† by Ted Anthony and â€Å"The Price of Gun Control by Dan Baum. All around I believe these articles were both very interesting and both took different perspectives on the issues of guns in America. Both Anthony and Baum illustrated the different problems that we have in America and our communities with gun control and gun violence. But, they both brought the text together to relate it on a personal level. I enjoyedRead MoreGun Laws And Gun Control1584 Words   |  7 Pages Guns in the U.S has been a problem for many years now. So much so that America is what comes to mind when people think about guns. America is the most known nation in the world when it comes to firearms, with citizens owning about an astonishing 270 million of the world’s 875 million firearms(Marshall ). That is thirty percent on the world registered firearms. The reason why Americans own so may guns comes down to the second Amendment, which claims, â€Å"A well-regulated Militia, being necessaryRead MorePublic Ownership Of Handguns Should Be Banned918 Words   |  4 PagesGun violence kills 33,000 Americans and injures over 80,000 people per year. It is ridiculous how much damage guns have brought to not only us, but the world itself. From Columbine, to Sandy Hook, to the movie theatre to the Oregon Community College shooting, it has just been ridiculous. This is all because we in America believe it is okay for people to carry guns and for them to be used if â€Å"needed†. If they were always banned to begin with, we would never have had this problem. The private ownershipRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control Essay1622 Words   |  7 PagesGun Control Does Not Equate to Less Gun Violence Civilian gun ownership has been debated, banned, allowed, and limited for as long as firearms have been used as a weapon against another human. Many arguments have been proposed over time about why civilians should, or should not be afforded the right to bear arms. What seems to be the most common modern opposition is that there is truly no need for civilians to own a gun, in this day and age. Many who oppose guns simply think less guns, less gun violenceRead MoreThe Debate Over Gun Laws1672 Words   |  7 Pagesthe legal right to own a weapon that could end your life? Gun control in America has been a long fought out debate. Republicans typically believe that it should be entirely legal for Americans to own guns because it is their right from the Constitution and they need it to defend themselves. Democrats typically believe that guns should not be legal because they are dangerous weapons and they can be abused by violent people. The debate over gun laws has continued to divide Ame rican because of the manyRead MoreAmmunition over Guns Essay1708 Words   |  7 Pageshas stood for centuries as the ultimate embodiment of the rights of citizens in America, and the right to keep and bear arms is a vital part of the individual rights guaranteed by the Constitution. Gun control, or even a ban, infringes upon this fundamental freedom of America’s constitutional law. Furthermore, the problems being targeted are not problems, and the technology being discredited, ludicrous. Finally, gun control proponents base their arguments on fearful statistics, whereas statisticsRead MoreThe Rights Of The United States823 Words   |  4 Pages Craig Williams Kate Simonsen ENG 112 82PR 03 November 2015Guns Don’t Kill but People Do!Many decades ago, the founders of America escaped from England to escape the strict rules that were being forced on them by their rulers. The men of this new found land convened to discuss their rules and rights to run their newly created government. They create a bill declaring the basic rights that every man in the country could have.†¯Some of the basic rights that were created was the right to life, libertyRead MoreGun Violence Essay1254 Words   |  6 Pages Why is gun violence such a major issue in american and in what way could we help to stop it. It is important to consider that 12,000 people lose their lives in the U.S. each year due to gun homicides. Another thing is there has been 286 mass shootings in 2017 alone. Some more things to be put to thought is the school shootings and better ways to prevent them. Another key thing to remember is gun control and how it can be fixed . Firstly is the statistics on gun violence in America to show what negativeRead MoreThe Moms Demand Action Organization970 Words   |  4 Pages Moms Demand Action ‘For gun sense in America’ The Moms Demand Action organization has recently made print advertisements to hopefully spark conversation and controversy among the audience to the group s standpoint on assault weapon laws in the United States. The Moms Demand Action organization is a group of mothers specifically targeting parents about spreading awareness of increasing gun violence involving children in the country. Though pro 2nd Amendment

Importance of Curriculum Foundations free essay sample

Curriculum planning involves making a series of choices (Saylor, Alexander and Lewis, p. 27) In the process of curriculum planning the three bases of curriculum should be considered these bases are society, learner and knowledge. Each of these bases is equally important and cannot be neglected. They are like three legs of a tripod stand, if one leg is bigger than the other than the tripod cannot stand. Similarly each of these bases cannot be given more importance over than the other all have equal importance. Society can be understood through Sociology, Learner can be understood by Psychology and Knowledge can be understood through Philosophy. Thus in order to plan curriculum the foundations of curriculum play a major role. Print (1993) defines curriculum foundations as those that influence and shape the mind of curriculum developers. These curriculum foundations can be categorized under three that is (i) philosophy, (ii) psychology and (iii) sociology. These foundations influence developers’ way of thinking about curricula and in the process, produce conceptions of curricula. The importance of three foundations in planning the curriculum is discussed as under. Philosophical Foundation Philosophy is basic to all curriculum foundations as it is concerned with making sense of what we encounter in our lives. It is concerned with the clarification of concepts in which our experiences and activities are intelligible (Print, 1993, pp. 33-34). Curriculum developers perceive the world by asking themselves three questions: ontological (What is real? ), epistemological (What is good? ) and axiological (What is true? Answers to these questions, emerge different individual philosophies through which individuals perceive and relate to the curriculum. Ontological . Ontology is concerned with the nature of reality and asks the question: What is real? Different societies perceive reality in different ways. Thus important when what is real to society is very important when constructing a curriculum. Curriculum developers see their roles of recreating society by using curri culum as a vehicle for change. Example: Bhukari, H. M (2010) in his research says that Pakistan has embraced capitalism since the time of its birth. Pakistan inherited different institutions of Modernity and capitalism such as democracy, cosmopolitan nationalism, free market etc from its colonial masters. All institutions including education were used to realize capitalist ends. All education policies from 1947 to 2010 were based on capitalist norms and premises. Capitalism was assumed to be natural. National education policies have sought to produce individuals who could productively serve capitalist institutions. (p. 256) Epistemological According to Print (1993), epistemology deals with the nature of knowledge and the nature of knowing. What is true? is the question asked in epistemology. Curriculum developers consider which truth and values need to pass from one generation to the other. Example: From the example above, capitalism is assumed as natural in the Pakistani society since the very begining, the society is divided into three classes and the capitalist run the country so it is considered true for the society therefore all educational policies up to 2010 are based on capitalist norms. Axiology Print (1997) holds that axiology deals with the question â€Å"What is good? † Ethics is concerned with the concept of good and bad. Curriculum developers while planning keep in mind such ethical knowledge that is desirable for students to acquire. Sharma (2006) holds that moral education is the concern of every teacher and that all the student – teacher interaction contributes inevitably towards students’ moral learning and can be geared to contribute towards their moral education. (p. 58) Example: Dean, L. B (2007) in her research report says that teaching and learning in Pakistani classrooms is simply the transmission of stated goals of civic education in most curriculum documents. A capacity to exercise judgment in matters of morality, ethics and pluralistic society. Another example can be the role of teacher as a model of truth and other abiding virtues like administering discipline, reinforcing discipline. Learning is the realization of goodness and truth. Philosophical schools of thoughts A part from these three questions we have five basic philosophies that lay the foundation of curriculum. Idealism Idealism stresses that students acquire vital subject matter in an idea centered curriculum. Ideas consist of concepts and generalizations for students to acquire. Idealist believes that knowledge come from four sources i. e. revelation (spiritual books), authority (tribe leader), religious leaders and myths. Idealism focus on the constant effort to achieve perfection and the purpose of learning is to benefit the humanity rather than self engagement. Example: Idealism is a strong reflection is the Sindh Text books, the verses from Holy Quran are quoted within the text. Teaching and learning process in Pakistani classrooms are from textbooks and knowledge comes from text books, subject matter is considered of high value in Pakistani society. Realism Realism is concerned with the world of ideas and anything that are fixed with establishing subject matter. Realists say that the matter is real and that the idea exists within the matter. Realists believe that there is nothing beyond scientific knowledge. Knowledge can be obtained from the use of sense and nature. Supernaturalism does not exist since it goes beyond sense data. (Edige Rao, 2003, p. 4) Example: In the practical classroom, the students follow a specific procedure to make hydrogen gas, and that is the reality of the procedure, if the procedure changes the gas can not be produced. Existentialism Existentialists believe in choices and decisions made by the students within a highly flexible environment. The individual is responsible for acts and deeds, with no one else to blame for mistakes are due to freedom. Existentialist wants children to make their own choices. They emphasize the importance of individuals continually making choice in school curriculum and in the curriculum of life. (Edige Rao, 2003, p. 24) Example: For this assignment, the students were given a freedom to give opinions for the marking criteria. They were free to assign as many marks for the two questions. Perennialism The two main goal of education according to perennials is to cultivate reason and develop children’s intellectual powers. They says that education has absolute knowledge and thus the subject matter cannot be changed. The subject matter should be taken from the â€Å"Great Books† which contain accumulated wisdom from the past. The school of perennialist does not teach subjects as general or as combined but history as history, geography as geography and not as general history. They value the literature from the past. Perennialists seek vital ideas of great minds of the past to select subject matter for students to learn (Edige Rao, 2003, p. 25) Example: Classical English literature of Shakespeare though being so old and ancient is still being taught in the schools because it contains values. Pragmatism Pragmatist say that knowledge is not at all mutable. In a world of rapid change what may be true and valid may not be valid and true tomorrow. They wish to teach children how to think rather what to think. Example: It was believed that there were nine planets in the solar system but now there are only eight planets. So the subject matter in the social studies text books changed. Knowledge does not remain mute but for perennialist it is the opposite case. Reconstructionism Reconstructionists believe in reconstruction of society with education having the schools in the fore front. They regard human heritage as the tool to be used in the self realization. They use multiple teaching materials and consider subject matter to be used chiefly in serving their central cause. Teachers following this philosophy will break precedents if necessary to rebuild the culture. Examples: In the Pakistani society there are many issues such as human rights, corruption, female status, child labour etc these are not dealt in detail in the textbooks neither are ever talked about in schools. There is a need of reconstructionist philosophy in the curriculum development so that such issues can be considered. Social Foundations 1. Functionalism Functionalism is a theoretical perspective based on the notion that social events (elections, Christmas, marriage, exams etc. ) can best be explained as the functions they perform that is the contributions they make to the continuity of society. Society is a complex system whose various parts work in a relationship to one another in a way that needs to be understood. For functionalist thinkers society is an integrated whole composed of structures which mesh closely with one another. (Giddens, A. , 1997, p. 689) Functionalism is a manifestation or intended functions including cultural transmission, socialization, integration and innovation as well as latent or hidden functions. Cultural transmission will bring unification and harmony in the society. The people will have some norms, beliefs, dress tec. Education integrate society. The function of education is to diverse a society more unified, integrated and functionists look upon education to do that through socialization cultural transmission, innovation and cultural change through latent functions of education. .e. g. institutions have a hidden function of a marriage market. Students in the universities or institutes select their marriage partners during their course of study. Lovat and Smith (2003) opines that the students who is good at mathematics and science should be encouraged to tackle a fully six years secondary education and be trained in order to take dominant roles in society. . Conflict Perspective Conflict theorists believe that the scarcity and value of resources in the society produce conflicts as groups’ struggles gain access to control those resources. According to Karl Marxs, societies are divided into classes with unequal resources. There is division of social interests in the social system because of inequalities. These conflicts of interests at some point break out into active change. Society is seen as essential full of tension. (Giddens, A. , 1997,p. 669) Browne (2020), â€Å"it is the major difference in interest between the two classes that create conflicts†. Conflict perspective view education an agent of conflict. There are conflict in classes e. g. Ellite classes has kept jobs for ellites. Ministry of Education has people who are beaurecrats but in Civic centre the employees who are serving as clerks are mostly who have received education n from either Matric or Madrsa system. Education is an agent that develops, constructs and reconstructs the same class. Education is a proponent of conflict, division and status quo and thus serves as a screening device. In both capitalist and socialist societies the educational institution actually promotes and perpetuates inequalities. Conflict arises in education because of 1. Unequal access in schooling and educational inequalities. 2. Unequal access to schools. 3. Unequal access to higher education. 4. Schools as screening devices. 3. Interactionist Perspective According to Gelles, R. J. , Leving, A. (1995), â€Å"The structure of society is determined through social interaction. † (p. 70) The focus of inteactionist analysis is the day-to-day activities of million of individuals, who through the way that they act together, make up what we call society. Interactionists agree that there is no such society, apart from the individuals who constitute it and therefore their research is based on the small scale interactions of everyday life. (Lawson, T Garrod, J. , 2003, p. 140) Interaction is a view that focuses on micro level analysis and the meanings that arise through the process of social interaction. (Thomson, W. E, Hickey, J. V, p. 626). It emphases that adequate explanation of social behavior requires understanding the subjective meaning people attach to their social circumstances. It stresses that people help, create their social circumstances and do not merely react to them. (Lie Bryn, 2006, pp. 14-15 ) Education is a source of tracking. It is an agent of socialization through interaction, for personal and social development. It is an agent of self fulfilling prophecies through interaction. Psychological Foundations: Lovat and Smith (2003) holds that psychology can assist the student teacher to reflect on all that is involved in the business of effective curriculum. Psychology helps in thinking about variables which effect the learning and schooling process. It helps the teacher in understanding the patterns of human development and learning processes. It makes a teacher proficient about the ways that can minimize student’s anxiety. According to Saylor, Alexander and Lewis (1980), the curriculum developers prior planning the curriculum need to know the information about the learner’s growth and development which include: 1. Physical development including health status and special physical needs. 2. Emotional and social development. 3. Psychological needs. 4. Intellectual and creative development. 5. Personal traits including motivational level and behaviour. Jean Piaget in his theories mainly focus on the child development and about the way thinking process develops from birth to adolescence (Lovat and Smith, 2003, p. 47) This four satge developmental theory helps planners to plan the subject matter according to the cognitive level. Example: Students of KG II, cannot be taught multiplication because, the child is at pre operational stage and the vocabulary is limited and he can only understand the basic number skills i. e. counting. The method is not lecture but play way. There are many who have contributed in psychology for curriculum planning and its implementation. Benjamin Bloom with his taxonomy of educational objectives in the cognitive domain, Jerome Burner with his models of learning, Robert Gagne with his notion of learning structures and hierarchies of capabilities and Abraham Maslow with his concept of human deeds fulfillment have marked contribution in the field of psychology (Lovat and Smith, 2003. P. 49) these contribution are considered in the curriculum process and thus is of prime importance.